American Colonies

Colony Region Founder Founded Purpose Note
Roanoke Southern Sir Walter Raleigh 1585 Establish English colony in New World Colonists disappeared without a trace.
Virginia Southern John Smith 1607 Trade and profits Founded as joint-stock company. House of Burgesses (1619). Only 60 of 1st 900 colonists survived.
Plymouth New England William Bradford 1620 Religious freedom for Separatists Mayflower Compact. Led by William Bradford
New York Middle Peter Minuit 1626 Trade and profits Set up as Dutch colony, taken over by English in 1664
Massachusetts Bay New England John Winthrop 1630 Religious freedom for Puritans Led by John Winthrop. 18,000 settlers by 1642
New Hampshire New England John Mason 1630 Escape for those constricted by religious and economic rules Puritan harshness led these settlers north and inland.
Maryland Middle George Calvert 1634 Religious freedom for Catholics Founded by George Calvert. Slow growing (only 600 by 1650. Maryland Toleration Act (1649)
Connecticut New England Thomas Hooker 1636 Religious and economic freedom Leaders of Massachusetts asked Hooker and followers to leave.
Rhode Island New England Roger Williams 1636 Religious freedom Williams set up most tolerant colony
Delaware Middle Peter Minuit 1638 Trade and profits Established by Sweden; taken by English in 1664
North Carolina Southern Group of proprietors 1653 Trade and profits Joint business venture
New Jersey Middle Lord Berkeley 1660 Trade and profits Established by Sweden; taken by English in 1664
South Carolina Southern Group of proprietors 1670 Trade and profits Rice major crop.
Pennsylvania Middle William Penn 1682 Religious freedom for Quakers; trade and profits Originally Quaker, this colony became home to many European immigrants
Georgia Southern James Oglethorpe 1733 Debtor colony. Buffer for Spanish colonies Restrictions on blacks,size of plantations kept colony small.

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